A-Z Index

Explore the wide range of subjects related to George Washington’s world and the colonial and founding eras.

The George Washington Digital Encyclopedia was generously supported by Richard and Bonnie Dial in memory of Irby and George Prendergast.


American Revolution

Adam Stephen New

Adam Stephen immigrated to Virginia from Scotland after serving as a surgeon aboard a British hospital ship during the War of Jenkins’ Ear.  By 1750, he set up medical practice near Fredericksburg, Virginia…

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American West



Washington Irving

Washington Irving was one of the most famous American authors of the nineteenth century.  While he is primarily remembered for short stories such as “Rip van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,”…

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John Augustine Washington III New

John Augustine Washington III was the great-grand nephew of George Washington and the last private owner of Mount Vernon.

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Food and Drink

Recipe for Small Beer

George Washington’s recipe for “Small Beer” appears in a 1757 notebook of his, which can be found today in its original form at the New York Public Library.1 According to the notebook’s date, Washington…

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Andrew Lewis

Andrew Lewis served as one of George Washington’s principal officers in the Virginia Regiment during the French & Indian War and, in the words of George Washington biographer Douglas Southall Freeman,…

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Mount Vernon



George Washington and Ballooning New

During George Washington’s lifetime lighter-than-air travel was first demonstrated. As a person who embraced new technologies, he was aware of and showed interest in the development of balloons.

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First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Countrymen

"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." These famous words about George Washington come from a eulogy written by Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee. Lee was a major general…

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Edmund Randolph

Edmund Randolph was born on August 10, 1753, to a prominent Virginia family. After graduating from the College of William & Mary, he pursued a career in law. He served as an aide-de-camp to General George…

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Servants and Laborers

Slavery and Enslaved Community

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