A-Z Index

Explore the wide range of subjects related to George Washington’s world and the colonial and founding eras.

The George Washington Digital Encyclopedia was generously supported by Richard and Bonnie Dial in memory of Irby and George Prendergast.

Agriculture

Muddy Hole Farm

Muddy Hole Farm was one of the five farms that made up the Mount Vernon estate. Located in the northeast corner of the plantation, running alongside Little Hunting Creek, Muddy Hole is said to have lived…

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American Revolution

New York Campaign

In the summer of 1776, shortly after America declared its independence from Great Britain, the New York Campaign took place primarily on Long Island, Manhattan Island and in Westchester County, New York…

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American West

Proclamation Line of 1763 New

The Proclamation Line of 1763 was a British-produced boundary marked in the Appalachian Mountains at the Eastern Continental Divide. Decreed on October 7, 1763, the Proclamation Line prohibited Anglo-American…

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Animals

Dogs

There were many dogs living at Mount Vernon during George Washington's lifetime. These animals were owned…

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Artists

Francis Hopkinson

A lawyer, statesman, judge, scientist, and inventor, Francis Hopkinson was intimately involved in shaping and reporting upon America's pre-Revolutionary, Revolutionary and Constitutional eras.  Yet more…

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Enslaved Community and Slavery

Hercules

Hercules, a member of the Mount Vernon enslaved community, became widely admired for his culinary skills…

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Family

Mary Ball Washington

Mary Ball Washington (b. approximately 1707 – d. 1789) is primarily known as the mother of George Washington. Limited information about Mary and her personal life has survived, although the historical…

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Food and Drink

Recipe for Small Beer

George Washington’s recipe for “Small Beer” appears in a 1757 notebook of his, which can be found today in its original form at the New York Public Library.1 According to the notebook’s date, Washington…

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Gardens

Upper Garden

The upper garden was established in the 1760s and paralleled the lower or kitchen garden to its south…

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Mansion

New Room

Washington's New Room is the largest and most ornate of the rooms found within the Mount Vernon mansion.

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Military

Pontiac's Rebellion New

Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1765) was an armed conflict between the British Empire and Algonquian, Iroquoian, Muskogean, and Siouan-speaking Native Americans following the Seven Years’ War. Also known as…

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Mount Vernon

Tomb

Learn more about the New Tomb at Mount Vernon - the Washington's final resting place.

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Objects

Acts of Congress

One of the early responsibilities of the Congress' official printer was to prepare bound copies of the…

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Personal

King's College

King’s College in New York City (today Columbia University), was created in 1754 by a Royal charter from King George II as an Anglican college, headed by the Church of England. At its founding King’s was…

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Politics

Circular Letter to the States

Having received news of the signing of a preliminary peace treaty on April 11, 1783 Congress proclaimed…

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Preservation

Foreign Leaders and Post World War II Diplomacy (1951-1955)

During the decade after World War II, Mount Vernon became an important space for visiting political leaders whose countries had received aid from the United States.

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Presidency

Creek Nation New

The Creek or Muscogee Nation (Este Mvskokvlke) is a modern, federally-recognized Native American tribe in the United States. In the eighteenth-century, though, the Creek Nation was instead the Creek Confederacy…

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Servants and Laborers

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