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Apples are ideally planted in multiples of different varieties for optimal fruit production, and many also benefit from pollinators to increase the effectiveness of cross-pollination. Most apple trees are grown from scionwood grafted to rootstock, and the kind of rootstock will determine the ultimate height and disease resistance of the tree. Dwarf and some semi-dwarf trees, with their smaller root systems, must be staked or trained to a wall or fence, much like the espaliered trees at Mount Vernon. The health and fruit yields of most trees depends on proper pruning and treatment of pests and disease.

Latin Name

Malus pumila



Type of Plant

Fruits Fruits
Trees Trees

Bloom Season



Fall Fall
Spring Spring


Max height Max Height: 20'
Max spread Max Spread: 15'


  • Flowering Tree
  • Edible

  • Sunlight Exposure

    Full Sun Full Sun


    Native Range

    Europe, Asia


    Apples were an important crop during the colonial period due to the popularity (and necessity) of cider production. Washington grew several varieties for this purpose in the Orchard at his Mansion Farm, as well as on his outlying farms. He records "Received 215 Apple trees (red striek) from Major Jenifer; wh[ic]h I sent to the river plantation in the Neck, to be planted" in his diary on November 12, 1785.

    Other Details

    Pollinator Pollinator
    Grown by Washington Grown by Washington

    Planted at Mount Vernon

    Planted at Mount Vernon Upper Garden Fruit Garden & Nursery Lower Garden

  • Upper Garden
  • Fruit Garden & Nursery
  • Lower Garden

  • Hardiness Zones

    4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 7a 7b 8a 8b USDA basemap

    Average annual extreme minimum temperature 1976-2005

    map legend 4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 7a 7b 8a 8b

    Bartlett Tree Expert Company has been working with Mount Vernon Estate since 2011 providing expert arboricultural care and GPS mapping for the estate’s historic trees, as well as support from their research facility.   Mount Vernon is proud to partner with Bartlett Tree Experts and appreciates their sponsorship of George Washington’s Mount Vernon Plant Finder App.

    Bring Washington's Garden Home

    Purchase our historic seeds, collected from plants grown at Mount Vernon and plant them in your own garden.

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