Mount Vernon’s digital encyclopedia includes entries and primary sources on Washington’s life, world and experiences, while also covering the Mount Vernon estate, its history, and preservation.
Founded in 1968 as a collaborative project between the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union and the University of Virginia, The Papers of George Washington (PGW) editing project documents the life and times of this founding father and the public events in which he participated.
Click above to explore the public access version of the
Washington papers. For the complete version, including
scholarly notes, visit the Washington Library
When the Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington at Mount Vernon (Washington Library) opened in 2013 the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association wanted a PGW editor on staff in the library. This editor, Neal Millikan, is currently working on the last volume of the Presidential Series. Upon completion of the project, the PGW headquarters and archives will move to Mount Vernon where they will constitute an important addition to the collections at the Washington Library.
George Washington realized the importance of his role in the American Revolution from the time he became Commander-in-Chief. He produced and received a large body of correspondence and reports and worried that if anything happened to him his papers might fall into enemy hands. Washington wrote to John Hancock on 13 August 1776 shortly before the Battle of Long Island: "I have thought It advisable to remove All the papers in my hands respecting the Affairs of the States from this place…. They are all contained in a large Box nailed up … to be delivered to Congress, In whose Custody I would beg leave to deposit them, untill our Affairs shall be so circumstanced as to admit of their return." Congress returned his papers a few months later, but over the next five years his cache of documents became increasingly disorganized as the materials were alternately packed and unpacked every time he moved his headquarters. In 1781 he asked Congress to provide him with an assistant to both organize and transcribe his papers. Richard Varick, a young lawyer from New York, was chosen for the position. Varick and a group of transcribers took Washington's papers to Poughkeepsie, New York, where they arranged them into the series suggested by Washington and then began transcribing the backlog of materials. Washington was pleased with Varick's work, writing to him on 1 January 1784 regarding "the satisfaction I feel in having my Papers so properly arranged, & so correctly recorded ... I am fully convinced that neither the present age or posterity will consider the time and labour which have been employed in accomplishing it, unprofitable spent." At the end of the Revolutionary War Washington's papers were sent to Mount Vernon for safekeeping. When George Washington stepped down after his eight years as president, he had his secretaries remove any materials John Adams might need and had the rest of his papers sent home. One of the tasks Washington hoped to accomplish during his retirement was organizing his papers. On 3 April 1797, a month after he left the presidency, he wrote to his former Secretary of War James McHenry: "I have not houses to build (except one, which I must erect for the accomodation & security of my Military, Civil & private Papers, which are voluminous and may be interesting)." However, Washington died before he was able to construct this library.
In his will George Washington bequeathed his papers to his nephew, U.S. Supreme Court justice Bushrod Washington. It may have been in the months following Washington’s death that Martha Washington removed and burned her correspondence with her husband. Soon after acquiring the papers Bushrod Washington allowed John Marshall to take some of the materials to Richmond while Marshall worked on his five-volume biography of the first president. When Marshall was at home he took good care of Washington's papers, but when he was out riding circuit court the materials were moved to his attic where some of them were “mutilated by rats and otherwise injured by damp."
In 1827 Bushrod Washington gave Jared Sparks permission to take some of the papers to Massachusetts as he worked on his documentary edition of Washington's writings. Between 1834 and 1837 Sparks published his 12-volume set of The Writings of George Washington. Sparks, however, only included outgoing correspondence in his edition and edited Washington’s words heavily, changing spelling, grammar, phrasing, and even entire sentences. Unfortunately he was also free with giving away samples of Washington’s handwriting from the letters he had in his possession.
When Bushrod Washington died in 1829 he left George Washington's papers to his nephew George Corbin Washington, a Maryland congressman, who in 1833 agreed to sell the public papers to the State Department; in 1849 he sold the private papers as well. The Washington papers remained at the State Department until 1904, when they were transferred to the Library of Congress. In 1964 the Library of Congress microfilmed the papers, and in 1998 it digitized images from the microfilm on its web site.
As a part of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, John C. Fitzpatrick prepared a 39-volume set of The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799 (1931-1944). This edition surpassed the earlier work by Sparks, but Fitzpatrick only utilized manuscripts housed in major repositories like the Library of Congress and predominantly included documents Washington had written. In leaving out the correspondence that Washington had received, both Sparks' and Fitzpatrick's works presented only one half of the story.
No comprehensive or fully annotated version of Washington's papers was attempted until the creation of the PGW project. At a time when the papers of Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were all being edited, George Washington, arguably the central figure in colonial America and the early republic, was noticeably absent. In 1968, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union and the University of Virginia launched a new effort to publish the papers of George Washington. The project determined to be the most comprehensive compilation yet and include both outgoing and incoming correspondence. In addition, rather than only utilize documents that resided in major repositories, the PGW project commenced a search to locate materials in libraries, historical societies, and public collections across the globe. The project has collected copies of more than 140,000 documents including correspondence, letter-books, diaries, account books, and farm reports. The Washington Library owns approximately 1,000 documents written or received by George and Martha Washington, which can be accessed through the library's catalog.
The library’s circulating collection covers the subject areas of George Washington, Martha Washington, Mount Vernon, Colonial America, The American Revolution, The Confederation, The Early Republic, Life in the 18th Century, Decorative Arts, and Historic Preservation.Explore our library catalog
The first step in the process is transcription: creating an electronic text that resembles the original manuscript as accurately and completely as possible. Editors do not change spelling, punctuation, capitalization, or paragraphing. The style of eighteenth-century handwriting can make transcription difficult, and editors also have to contend with grammar that had not yet been standardized. In addition, many individuals in this time period lacked formal education and utilized phonetic spelling, making deciphering sentences even more difficult. The physical condition of the document can also be problematic; faded ink, bleed through, and damage to the manuscript can make transcription a painstaking process.
The next step is collation: visually comparing and proofreading the manuscript to render a more accurate text. Editors use standard proofreading marks to note any necessary changes. For documents from the eighteenth century it is common to find multiple drafts or copies of letters. Editors prefer to print the document that was sent to the recipient, but when that text is unavailable, they utilize the next best version and collate all subsequent versions against the authoritative copy text.
The next step is annotation: providing historical context to aid modern understanding of the documents. In annotating documents the editor identifies people, places, and events that the reader might not know, in addition to any further information that would help the reader understand the document. This process requires the editor to conduct thorough research and write short, concise summaries. Annotations also can contain information about where the original document is located, what textual problems the editor may have found in the manuscript, and any alternative versions of the document that may exist.
Since its inception in 1968, the PGW has published 65 of its anticipated 85 volumes. It remains on schedule to finish the complete Papers in about 2023. Eschewing a traditional chronological edition, the project divided George Washington's life into five series: Colonial, Revolutionary War, Confederation, Presidential, and Retirement, along with Washington's diaries. This system introduced a revolutionary new way to publish papers, allowing different editors to work simultaneously on volumes from various stages of Washington's life. With this system, documents and writings from Washington's later years (particularly the presidency and retirement) are available to researchers much earlier than with a traditional chronological edition.
(17 volumes to date)
|Revolutionary War Series
(22 volumes to date)
In 2004 the PGW embarked upon a massive digitization project with the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association and the University of Virginia Press's digital database, Rotunda. It was the first of the major Founding Father documentary editing projects to do so. The result was the Papers of George Washington Digital Edition (PGWDE), an online publication of the volumes that had been published up to that point. As a "living edition," the PGWDE enables the editors to correct known errors in the print volumes and compile a cumulative index that standardizes references to people, topics, and sources appearing in multiple volumes and series. In addition, the PGWDE is updated regularly with the latest print volumes.
The PGWDE can be accessed in the Washington Library:
The PGWDE can be accessed offsite (less scholarly notes) here: