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Person Purpose of Event Location Date Primary Source
+ Oney Judge
Female

Health Mansion House 1774 Ledger B, 1772-1793

By your [Thomas Bishop] wife's delivering Doll at the Ferry - & House Betty 1..0..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Health Mansion House April 1774 Ledger B, 1772-1793

To Cash for your [Thomas Bishop] wife 1..0..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Health Mansion House April 19, 1774 Ledger B, 1772-1793

By Cash pd [paid] Suekey Bishop 1..0..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Comment Mount Vernon 1786 Overseer's Account Book, 1785-1798

+ Oney Judge
Female

Census Mansion House February 18, 1786 Diary Entry, 18 February 1786

+ Oney Judge
Female

House Servant
Comment Mansion House 1787 Overseer's Account Book, 1785-1798

+ Oney Judge
Female

House Servant
Provisions Mansion House 1788 Overseer's Account Book, 1785-1798

+ Oney Judge
Female

Census Major West's April 1788 List of Taxable Property in Truro Parish, 1788

Blacks above 12 years of age … [column 3] Billy undr 16, Joe Do [under 16], Christopher Do [under 16], Cyrus Do [under 16], Uriah Do [under 16], Godferry Do [under 16], Sinah Do [under 16], Mima Do [under 16], Lylla Do [under 16], Oney Do [under 16], Anna Do [under 16], Beck Do [under 16], Virgin Do [under 16], Patt Do [under 16], Will, Will, Charles, Gabriel, Jupiter, Nanney 1st, Kate, Sarah, Alice, Nanny 2d …
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Comment Mansion House 1789 Overseer's Account Book, 1785-1798

+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions New York June 23, 1789 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

By House Exps [Expenses] pd [paid] for Calico & Linen to make Gowns for Mrs. Washington's maids, by her desire 3..12..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions New York July 10, 1789 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

By Contingent Exps. [Expenses] pd. [paid] for 5 yds. [yards] of Lawn for Mrs. Washington's maids, by her desire 1..15..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions New York August 08, 1789 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

By House Exps. [Expenses] for a pr. [pair] Shoes for Oney by her mistress's desire 0..9..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions New York November 04, 1789 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

By House Exps. [Expenses] del'd. [delivered] Mrs. Washington to purchase stockings for Molly & Oney 0..18..0
+ Oney Judge
Female

Payment to Slave Philadelphia February 22, 1791 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contg. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] gave to Mrs Washington for Austin, Hercules, Moll & Oney 1 doll. [dollar] each & Chris. ½ doll. [dollar] to buy things to send home by Giles 4 [dollars] 50 [cents]
+ Oney Judge
Female

Payment to Slave Philadelphia February 22, 1791 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contg. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] gave to Mrs Washington for Austin, Hercules, Moll & Oney 1 doll. each & Chris. 1/2 doll. to buy things to send home by Giles [$] 4.50
+ Oney Judge
Female

Comment Philadelphia April 12, 1791 Letter to Tobias Lear, 12 April 1791

The Attorney-General’s case and mine I conceive, from a conversation I had with him respecting our Slaves, is some what different. He in order to qualify himself for practice in the Courts of Pennsylvania, was obliged to take the Oaths of Citizenship to that State; whilst my residence is incidental as an Officer of Government only, but whether among people who are in the practice of enticing slaves even where there is no colour of law for it, this distinction will avail, I know not, and therefore beg you will take the best advise you can on the subject, and in case it shall be found that any of my Slaves may, or any for them shall attempt their freedom at the expiration of six months, it is my wish and desire that you would send the whole, or such part of them as Mrs. Washington may not chuse to keep, home—for although I do not think they would be benefitted by the change, yet the idea of freedom might be too great a temptation for them to resist. At any rate it might, if they conceived they had a right to it, make them insolent in a State of Slavery. As all except Hercules and Paris are dower negroes, it behoves me to prevent the emancipation of them, otherwise I shall not only loose the use of them, but may have them to pay for. If upon taking good advise it is found expedient to send them back to Virginia, I wish to have it accomplished under pretext that may deceive both them and the Public;—and none I think would so effectually do this, as Mrs. Washington coming to Virginia next month (towards the middle or latter end of it, as she seemed to have a wish to do) if she can accomplish it by any convenient and agreeable means, with the assistance of the Stage Horses &c. This would naturally bring her maid and Austin—and Hercules under the idea of coming home to Cook whilst we remained there, might be sent on in the Stage. Whether there is occasion for this or not according to the result of your enquiries, or issue the thing as it may, I request that these Sentiments and this advise may be known to none but yourself & Mrs. Washington. From the following expression in your letter “that those who were of age might follow the example of his (the Attorney’s people) after a residence of six months”—it would seem that none could apply [86] before the end of May—& that the non age of Christopher, Richmond & Oney is a bar to them.
+ Oney Judge
Female

Reassignment Philadelphia April 24, 1791 Letter from Tobias Lear, 24 April 1791

I have had a very full conversation with the Attorney General respecting your slaves, without however, letting him know that I had heard from you on the subject; but entered upon it with this introduction that as you were absent, and could not return before the expiration of the term which the law of this State specifies for the residence of a Slave, I thought it my duty to take such advice & such measures in the business, with the concurrence of Mrs Washington, as might be proper in the occasion, having a due regard to your public station. The Attorney General made the following observations on the subject. That he found it was a received construction of the law, and one which he thought the words of the law fully warranted, that if a Slave is brought into the State and continues therein for the space of six months, he may claim his freedom, let the cause of his being brought be what it may; and that this extends, in its full force, to those slaves who may be brought here by the Officers of the General Government or by members of Congress. If a man becomes a Citizen of the State, six months residence of the slave is not necessary for his liberation; he is free from the moment his master is a citizen; the term of six months being only intended for the slaves of such as might travel through or sojourn in the State. That those Slaves who were under the age of 18, might, after a residence of six months, apply to the Overseers of the Poor, who had authority to bind them to a master until they should attain the age of 18, when they would become free. That the overseers made it a point to bind the young Slaves to their original masters, unless there should be some special reason against it; but after they are so bound they cannot be carried out of the State without their own consent. That the Society in this city for the abolition of slavery, had determined to give no advice and take no measures for liberating those Slaves which belonged to the Officers of the general Government or members of Congress. But notwithstanding this, there were not wanting persons who would not only give them (the Slaves) advise; but would use all means to entice them from their masters. This being the case, the Attorney General conceived, that after six months residence, your slaves would be upon no better footing than his. But he observed, that if, before the expiration of six months, they could, upon any pretence whatever, be carried or sent out of the State, but for a single day, a new era would commence on their return, from whence the six months must be dated for it requires an entire six months for them to claim that right. As the matter stands upon this footing I think that there will be but little difficulty in it; ... Mrs Washington proposes in a short time to make an excursion as far as Trenton, and of course, she will take with her Oney & Christopher, which will carry them out of the State; so that in this way I think the matter may be managed very well. As Mrs Washington does not incline to go to Virginia until you return to this place, the foregoing arrangement is the best I can think of to accomplish this business. You will permit me now, Sir, (and I am sure you will pardon me for doing it) to declare, that no consideration should induce me to take these steps to prolong the slavery of a human being, had I not the fullest confidence that they will at some future period be liberated, and the strongest conviction that their situation with you is far preferable to what they would probably obtain in a state of freedom.
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Servant
Reassignment Trenton May 17, 1791 Letter from Tobias Lear, 15 May 1791

On tuesday Mrs Washington proposes going over to Jersey for a few days—she makes her visit to Mrs Dickinson. It was thought best & cheapest, by Mrs Washington & myself, that she should hire a Coach, 4 horses & a driver for the trip—the whole of which is engaged of Mr Page for twenty four dollars the trip, he bearing all expences of horses & driver—(Daniel is to be the driver)...Mrs Washington takes the children with her & Christopher & Oney.
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions Philadelphia May 20, 1791 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contg. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] deld. [delivered] to Mrs. Washington for 2 pcs. Chintz bot. by her for her maids [$]3.20
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions June 04, 1791 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contg [Contingent] Exp [Expenses] deld [delivered] Mrs Emmerson to pay for 4 pair Stockings for Moll & Oney
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions Philadelphia May 23, 1792 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Do. [Contingent Expences] pd. [paid] for 4 pr. [pairs] Cotton hose 16/, & 2-1/2 yds. Linen 6/3 for Moll & Oney (Mrs. Washington's maids) [$] 2.97
+ Oney Judge
Female

Payment to Slave Philadelphia June 06, 1792 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Congt. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] gave to Austin, Hercules & Oney to go to the Play [$] 1.50
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia June 14, 1792 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Cong. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] deld. [delivered] to Moll & Oney by Mrs. Washington's desire to buy cloth shoes [$] 3.[00]
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia December 12, 1792 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contgt. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] for a pr. [pair] Shoes for Oney [$] 1.20
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions Philadelphia December 15, 1792 Lear Ledger, 1789-1792

Contg. [Contingent] Exps. [Expenses] pd. [paid] for making 2 habbits for Mrs. Washington's maids [$] [0].67
+ Oney Judge
Female

Payment to Slave Philadelphia April 01, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 4 March 1793 to 29 June 1793

do. [Contingent Expenses] gave to Molly & Oney to see the tumbling feats [$] 1.[00]
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Provisions Philadelphia May 15, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 4 March 1793 to 29 June 1793

do. [Contingent Expenses] pd [paid] for 14 1/2 yds [yards] Check for Mrs. Washington's maids [$] 4.90
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Maid
Payment to Slave Philadelphia June 24, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 4 March 1793 to 29 June 1793

do [Contingent Expenses] gave to Mrs Washington's maids to go to the Circus [$] 1.[00]
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia July 23, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1793 to 31 December 1793

do [Contingent Expenses] gave to Oney to pay for a pr [pair] shoes [$] 1.50
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia September 06, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1793 to 31 December 1793

Do [Contingent Expenses] gave Oney by order to buy a pr [pair] shoes [$] 1.20
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia December 26, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1793 to 31 December 1793

Gave Moll to buy stockings for herself & Oney by Mrs W's [Washington's] order [$]2.75
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia December 26, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1793 to 31 December 1793

Gave Oney to buy shoes by order of Do [Mrs. Washington] [$]1.25
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia December 26, 1793 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1793 to 31 December 1793

Gave Oney to buy shoes by order of Do [Mrs. Washington] [$]1.25
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia April 22, 1794 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 January 1794 to 30 June 1794

Do [Contingent Expenses] delivd [delivered] Oney by order to buy a bonnet etc [$] 2.00
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia June 13, 1794 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 January 1794 to 30 June 1794

Contg't Exp's [Contingent Expenses] gave Oney by Mrs. W.'s [Washington's] order to pay for making a gown [$] [0].50
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia August 23, 1794 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 July 1794 to 29 December 1794

Gave Oney to buy a pr [pair] of shoes, by order. [$] 1.25
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia January 12, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 January 1795 to 28 May 1795

Contg't Exp's [Contingent Expenses] gave Oney to buy a pr. [pair] of shoes pr order [$] 1.54
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia March 27, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 January 1795 to 28 May 1795

Gave Oney by order of Mrs. Washington to pay for making a gown [$] [0].60
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia May 20, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 January 1795 to 28 May 1795

Contg't Exp's. [Contingent Expenses] gave Molly to buy stockings for her self & Oney by order [$] 3.56
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia June 25, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 June 1795 to 29 February 1796

Castor Oil for Oney [$] 0.50
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia July 14, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 June 1795 to 29 February 1796

mak'g [making] 2 gowns for Moll & Oney 7/6
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia July 15, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 June 1795 to 29 February 1796

Do [Contingent Expenses] - gave Oney - pr. [per] order to buy a pr [pair] of shoes [$] 1.54
+ Oney Judge
Female

Provisions Philadelphia December 09, 1795 Philadelphia Household Accounts, 1 June 1795 to 29 February 1796

Gave Molly to buy stockings for herself & Oney pr. [per] order [$] 2.50
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Servant
Runaway Philadelphia May 24, 1796 Runaway Advertisement, 24 May 1796

Advertisement. Absconded from the household of the President of the United States. Oney Judge, a light mulatto girl, much freckled, with very black eyes and bushy black hair, she is of middle stature, slender, and delicately , about 20 years of age. She has many changes of good clothes, of all sorts, but they are not sufficiently recollected to be described - As there was no suspicion of her going off nor no provocation to do so, it is not easy to conjecture whither she has gone, or fully, what her design is;- but as she may attempt to escape by water, all masters of vessels are cautioned against admitting her into them, although it is probable she will attempt to pass for a free woman, and has, it is said; where- withal to pay her passage. Ten dollars will be paid to any person who will bring her home, if taken in the city, or on board any vessel in the harbour;- and a reasonable additional, sum if apprehended at, and brought from a greater distance, and in proportion to the distance. Frederick Kitt, Steward. May 23
+ Oney Judge
Female

Runaway New York June 28, 1796 Letter from Thomas Lee Jr. , 28 June 1796

I have not been unmindful of the desire your expressed that I should make enquiry about your runaway Woman; From the information I have received she has certainly been here. This in-formation has been gained from a free mulattoe Woman who is cooke ina boarding house in this city kept by a Mr. Marcelline, this cooke acknowledges she is well acquained with Oney & that she has been here, says farther that she is gone to Boston - wherher this last information is intended as a blind or not I cannot say, however I have spoken to a Constable of the City who has promised me to keep a watch & make search for her. I leave it with you, Sir, how far it may be ad-visable for you to write to some person here about her, the enquiry on my part shall be continued as we proceed on and especially in Boston.
+ Oney Judge
Female

House Servant
Runaway September 01, 1796 Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, 1 September 1796

Enclosed is the name, and description of the Girl I mentioned to you last night. She has been the particular attendent on Mrs. Washington since she was ten years old; and was handy and useful to her being perfect Mistress of her needle. We have heard that she was seen in New York by someone who knew her, directly after she went off. And since by Miss Langden, in Portsmouth; who meeting her one day in the Street, and knowing her, was about to stop and speak to her, but she brushed quickly by, to avoid it. By her being seen in New York (if the fact be so) it is not probable she went immediately to Portsmouth by Water from this City; but whether she travelled by land, or Water to the latter, it is certain the escape has been planned by some one who knew what he was about, and had the means to defray the expence of it and to entice her off; for not the least suspicion was entertained of her going, or having formed a connexion with any one who could induce her to such an Act…I would thank you for writing to the Collector of that Port, and him for his endeavours to recover, and send her back:...I am sorry to give you, or any one else trouble on such a trilling occasion, but the ingratitude of the girl, who was brought up and treated more like a child than a Servant (and Mrs. Washington's desire to recover her) ought not to escape with impunity if it can be avoided.
+ Oney Judge
Female

Seamstress
Runaway November 28, 1796 Letter to Joseph Whipple, 28 November 1796

I regret that the attempt you made to restore the Girl (Oney Judge as she called herself while with us, and who, without the least provocation absconded from her Mistress) should have been attended with so little Success. To enter into such a compromise with her, as she suggested to you, is totally inadmissable, for reasons that must strike at first view: for however well disposed I might be to a gradual abolition, or even to an entire emancipation of that description of People (if the latter was in itself practicable at this moment) it would neither be politic or just to reward unfaithfulness with a premature preference; and thereby discontent before hand the minds of all her fellow-servants who by their steady attachments are far more deserving than herself of favor...We have indeed, lately been informed thro' other channels that she went to Portsmouth with a Frenchman, who getting tired of her, as is presumed, left her; and that she had betaken herself to the needle, the use of which she well understood, for a livelihood...If she will return to her former service without obliging me to use compulsory means to effect it her late conduct will be forgiven by her Mistress, and she will meet with the same treatment from me that all the rest of her family (which is a very numerous one) shall receive. If she will not you would oblige me, by resorting to such measures as are proper to put her on board a Vessel bound either to Alexandria or the Federal City. Directed in either case, to my Manager at Mount Vernon; by the door of which the Vessel must pass, or to the care of Mr. Lear at the last mentioned place, if the Vessel should not stop before it arrives at that Port.
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